COMMON NAME

Oakforest woodrush


FULL SCIENTIFIC NAME

Luzula luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy & Wilmott


FAMILY NAME COMMON

Rush family


FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME

Luzula luzuloides


IMAGES


Inflorescence

Habit

Close-up of leaves

Infructescence

Incursion

Incursion II

NOMENCLATURE/SYNONYMS

Synonyms: Juncoides nemorosum (Pollard) Kuntze


DESCRIPTION

Botanical Glossary

Luzula luzuloides is a perennial woodrush that grows in tufts. Flowering culms can be 45-70 cm (18-28 in.) in height. The leaves of this plant are long, tapering to a point, and are hairy especially at the margins. The leaves measure around 30 cm (12 in.) long and 7 mm (0.25 in.) wide. This plant flowers and fruits in the late spring and summer. The flowers are in clusters of two to eight and are whitish to pinkish in color. These flowers are arranged in a loosely branched inflorescence. The petals measure 3-3.8 mm (0.15 in.) long. The bracts are brownish to clear and the tips look as if they are torn. The fruit are reddish capsules that are round to oval in shape, measuring 2 mm (0.08 in.) long. The ellipsoid-shaped seeds are dark brown and shiny and measure 1 mm (0.04 in.) in length. Page References Fernald 417, Gleason & Cronquist 667, Holmgren 631, Magee & Ahles 328, Seymour 178. See reference section below for full citations.


SIMILAR SPECIES

None


REPRODUCTIVE/DISPERSAL MECHANISMS

Luzula luzuloides spreads vegetatively by means of stolons. Seeds are passively dispersed from the ripened capsules.


DISTRIBUTION

This plant is native to central Europe. In the United States it is distributed from Maine to Pennsylvania and west to Minnesota. In New England it has been reported from Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut.


HISTORY OF INTRODUCTION IN NEW ENGLAND

It is not known how Luzula luzuloides was introduced into New England. It is possible that it was introduced by accident, though there is some indication that it may have been planted intentionally (Howard 1978). The earliest records of this plant in New England are from 1910 from Norfolk Country, Massachusetts and 1912 from Maine.


HABITATS IN NEW ENGLAND

Abandoned Field, Early Successional Forest, Edge, Floodplain Forest, Open Disturbed Area, Pasture, River or Stream, Vacant Lot, Yard or Garden

Luzula luzuloides is most often found in open woods, fields and lawns.


THREATS

Luzula luzuloides has the potential to invade unmanaged habitats such as open woods. It spreads vegetatively and could displace native plant species.


DOCUMENTATION NEEDS

Documentation required: Herbarium specimen or mounted snippet with flowers or fruit.
Best time for documentation: Late spring, early summer.


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Taxonomic information about the species

PLANTS Database
General information and map

Flora of North America
Description and distribution map


REFERENCES

Fernald, M.L.  1950.  Gray's Manual of Botany 8th edition.  American Book Company, New York.

Gleason, H.A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. New York.

Gleason H.A. and A.C. Cronquist.  1991.  Manual of Vascular Plants of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2nd ed.  New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Holmgren N.H. 1998. Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual.  New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Howard, H.H.  1978.  New locations of Poa chaixii Vill.  Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 105(4): 317.

Magee D.W and H.E. Ahles. 1999.  Flora of the Northeast. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst.

Seymour, F.C. 1969. The Flora of New England. Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

USDA, NRCS.  2001.  The PLANTS Database, Version 3.1. (http://plants.usda.gov).  National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.